The Markandeya Purana records that Suriyan or the Sun had his birth in the sound 'OM' which word originated the existence of this world. Khasiba was the son of Adithi. Hence he is Aditya. This tale is told in the Mahabaratha.
Bright light which removes darkness from the world,
Luminescent rays which please Devas and mortals,
My master riding around Mount Meru on a chariot pulled by seven horses,
Hold my fate of a good course, I sing thy Praises.
Suryan is auspicious Graha. He is the right eye of Lord Siva. The sun is the prime star one with Moon in radiant rays. His is the subtle body that wheels around the world on the chariot pulled by seven horses. This single wheeled chariot is driven by Arunan who has no legs in him. Suriyan has eight hands, on his shoulders are two lotus flowers. He wears a silk dress of golden shade. He is praised by the twelve great Rishis. Suriyan is the lord of seasons. He is also praised as Aadavan, Prabhakaran, Kathiravan, Pakalavan, Bhaskaran.
The Propitiation of Surya Dasa
The Period of Suriya's influence is six years. He is responsible for a fate of individual's father. He is the lord of Leo. Those who have Suriya in weak position, ill in their horoscope, those who have diseases due to heat, Typhoid, Fever, lack of strength in the bones, eye disease have their cure in the worship of Siva and the wearing of the Gemstone Manikkam. Suriya is propitiated by fasting on the Sundays, donating a cow and by Surya Namaskar and worship at a shrine of Suriya.
The Shrine of Surya, Suriyanar Temple
Location: 12 kilometre away from Kumbakonam by rail to Aduthurai Railway Station, 1km from Aduthurai Railway Station by bus.
Rule: It is a rule that one should worship at Suriyanar temple only after offering prayers at Pranavaradeswarar Mangalanayaki temple at Thirumangalakudi.
Temple: It is very near Pranavaradeswarar temple, known as Suriyanar koil because of the primacy of Suriyan.
Reigning Deity: Suriyan with consorts Umadevi and Saya Devi.
Other Grahas : Guru faces Suriyan, Saniswarar at Southwest. Budhan is to the East, Chevvai is at South east. There is a sanctum for Chandran. Kethu is to the north east, Sukra at north and Rahu is to the Northwest.
Holy Tree : Vellarukku.
Holy Water : Suriya Pushkarini, River Cauvery.
Devotees : Emperor Parikshit, Chithirangathan puruvaras, Indran, Thoomakethu and Nalan.
Construction : At about 12th century A.D. Kulothuga the first caused a temple built of Rock.
The History of Suriyanar Koil : The name of the village is itself Suriyanar koil. A three tiered tower is at the west of the temple. The holy tank is to the left of the temple front side. The shrine Suriyan is in the center of the temple. Suriyan alone has a temple built all for himself. None of the other Navagrahas share this unique characteristic. It is also here that one sees all the Navagrahas in a separate canopy with a shrine for each. High walls protects this beautiful temple Suriyan.
In the Southwest corner of the temple is Koil Theertha Vinayagar. When the Navagrahas once under a curse of Brahma came to this temple for prayers, they worshipped this Vinayagar here and attained salvation. One enter the Sanctum of Suriyan by climbing up a few steps and through Artha Mandapam, Maha Mandapam, Shthapana Mandapam, Sabanayagar mandapam and Narthana Mandapam.
In the Sabanayagar hall are lord Nataraja and the nine grahas. In the east and north to the sthapana hall ae Kasi Visawanathar and mother Visalakshi. Guru is in the Mahamandapam. In front of him stands a horse, the mount of Suriyan. In the sanctum itself, Suriyan stands with Usha Devi at his left and Chaya Devi at his right. The Darshan is likely to be of great satisfaction. Guru face Suriyan, who gives refuge to us by the posture of refuge with his right hand and left hand planted upon his thighs.
It is unique in this temple that all the nine Grahas have a sanctum dedicated to each. Since Suriyan is the foremost of the planets, this temple complex has come to be called by its name. None of the Navagrahas is armed. They are full of grace and it would be very fruitful to visit his temple at least once. Since these Navagrahas are the agents through whom we enjoy the fruits of our past karma, we should not neglect to propitiate them for the attainment of inner peace.
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